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This material is intended to be of general interest only and should not be construed as individual investment advice or a recommendation or solicitation to buy, sell or hold any security or to adopt any investment strategy. It does not constitute legal or tax advice.

The views expressed are those of the investment manager and the comments, opinions and analyses are rendered as at publication date and may change without notice. The information provided in this material is not intended as a complete analysis of every material fact regarding any country, region or market. All investments involve risks, including possible loss of principal.

Data from third party sources may have been used in the preparation of this material and Franklin Templeton ("FT") has not independently verified, validated or audited such data. FT accepts no liability whatsoever for any loss arising from use of this information and reliance upon the comments opinions and analyses in the material is at the sole discretion of the user. ​

Products, services and information may not be available in all jurisdictions and are offered outside the US by other FT affiliates and/or their distributors as local laws and regulation permits. Please consult your own professional adviser or Franklin Templeton institutional contact for further information on availability of products and services in your jurisdiction.​

Issued in the US by Franklin Templeton Distributors, Inc., One Franklin Parkway, San Mateo, California 94403-1906, (800) DIAL BEN/342-5236, - Franklin Templeton Distributors, Inc. is the principal distributor of Franklin Templeton’s US registered products, which are not FDIC insured; may lose value; and are not bank guaranteed and are available only in jurisdictions where an offer or solicitation of such products is permitted under applicable laws and regulation.

Australia: Issued by Franklin Templeton Australia Limited (ABN 87 006 972 247) (Australian Financial Services License Holder No. 225328), Level 19, 101 Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000. Austria/Germany: FTS Branch Frankfurt/Main, Mainzer Landstr. 16, 60325 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Tel +49 (0) 69/27223-557, Fax +49 (0) 69/27223-622, Canada: Issued by Franklin Templeton Corp., 5000 Yonge Street, Suite 900 Toronto, ON, M2N 0A7, Fax:(416) 364-1163,(800) 387-0830, www.franklintempleton.caNetherlands: Franklin Templeton International Services S.à r.l., Dutch Branch , World Trade Center Amsterdam, H-Toren, 5e verdieping, Zuidplein 36, 1077 XV Amsterdam, Netherlands. Tel +31 (0) 20 575 2890 Dubai: Issued by Franklin Templeton (ME) Limited, authorized and regulated by the Dubai Financial Services Authority. Dubai office: Franklin Templeton, The Gate, East Wing, Level 2, Dubai International Financial Centre, P.O. Box 506613, Dubai, U.A.E., Tel.:+9714-4284100 Fax:+9714-4284140. France: Issued by Franklin Templeton France S.A., 20 rue de la Paix, 75002 Paris France. Hong Kong: Issued by Franklin Templeton (Asia) Limited, 17/F, Chater House, 8 Connaught Road Central, Hong Kong. Italy: Issued by Franklin Templeton International Services S.à.r.l. – Italian Branch, Corso Italia, 1 – Milan, 20122, Italy. Japan: Issued by Franklin Templeton Japan Limited. Korea: Issued by Franklin Templeton Trust Management Co., Ltd., 3rd fl., CCMM Building, 12 Youido-Dong, Youngdungpo-Gu, Seoul, Korea 150-968. Luxembourg/Benelux: Issued by Franklin Templeton International Services S.à r.l. – Supervised by the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier - 8A, rue Albert Borschette, L-1246 Luxembourg - Tel:+352-46 66 67-1 - Fax:+352-46 66 76.  Malaysia: Issued by Franklin Templeton Asset Management (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. & Franklin Templeton GSC Asset Management Sdn. Bhd. Poland: Issued by Templeton Asset Management (Poland) TFI S.A.; Rondo ONZ 1; 00-124 Warsaw Romania: Issued by Bucharest branch of Franklin Templeton Management Limited ("FTML") registered with the Romania Financial Supervisory Authority under no. PJM01SFIM/400005/14.09.2009,, and authorized and regulated in the UK by the Financial Conduct Authority. Singapore: Issued by Templeton Asset Management Ltd. Registration No. (UEN) 199205211E. 7 Temasek Boulevard, #38-03 Suntec Tower One, 038987, Singapore. Spain: FTS Branch Madrid, Professional of the Financial Sector under the Supervision of CNMV, José Ortega y Gasset 29, Madrid, Spain. Tel +34 91 426 3600, Fax +34 91 577 1857. South Africa: Issued by Franklin Templeton SA (PTY) Ltd which is an authorised Financial Services Provider. Tel:+27 (21) 831 7400 ,Fax:+27 (21) 831 7422. Switzerland: Issued by Franklin Templeton Switzerland Ltd, Stockerstrasse 38, CH-8002 Zurich. UK: Issued by Franklin Templeton Management Limited (FTML), registered office: Cannon Place, 78 Cannon Street, London EC4N 6HLTel +44 (0)20 7073 8500. Authorized and regulated in the United Kingdom by the Financial Conduct Authority. Nordic regions: Issued by Franklin Templeton International Services S.à r.l. , Contact details: Franklin Templeton International Services S.à r.l., Swedish Branch, filial, Blasieholmsgatan 5, SE-111 48, Stockholm, Sweden. Tel +46 (0)8 545 012 30,, authorised in the Luxembourg by the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier  to conduct certain financial activities in Denmark, in Sweden, in Norway, in Iceland and in Finland. Franklin Templeton International Services S.à r.l., Swedish Branch, filial conducts activities under supervision of Finansinspektionen in Sweden.

Offshore Americas: In the U.S., this publication is made available only to financial intermediaries by Templeton/Franklin Investment Services, 100 Fountain Parkway, St. Petersburg, Florida 33716. Tel:(800) 239-3894 (USA Toll-Free),(877) 389-0076 (Canada Toll-Free), and Fax: (727) 299-8736.Investments are not FDIC insured; may lose value; and are not bank guaranteed. Distribution outside the U.S. may be made by Templeton Global Advisors Limited or other sub-distributors, intermediaries, dealers or professional investors that have been engaged by Templeton Global Advisors Limited to distribute shares of Franklin Templeton funds in certain jurisdictions. This is not an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to purchase securities in any jurisdiction where it would be illegal to do so.

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